- Balancing information texts with literary texts.
- Building knowledge in the disciplines: learning to read, reading to learn.
- Staircase of complexities. Each year reading gets more complex, and teachers must ensure their students are reading at grade level.
- Text-based answers. Making sure that when students read they gather evidence from the text to comprehend the reading and answer questions.
- Writing from sources. A focus on narrative writing based on source materials. Using essay tests versus multiple choice tests.
- Academic vocabulary. Three tiers of vocabulary to focus on: everyday words, academic vocabulary, and profession-specific words.
- Focus. Narrow and deeper focus on skills, foundation and understanding of concepts.
- Coherence. The focus is deeper, extensions of prior knowledge.
- Fluency. Speed and accuracy in problem solving, to memorize through repetition.
- Deep understanding. Not just getting the right answer, but using processes and understanding how to arrive at the answer.
- Applications. Choosing the appropriate concept for problem solving without being told to do so. Teachers provide opportunities at all grade levels for students to apply math concepts in “real world” situations.
- Dual intensity. Students are practicing and understanding. Teachers create opportunities for students to participate in “drills” and make use of those skills through extended application of math concepts.
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